Line loss refers to the power that is lost in an electrical conductor during the transmission and distribution phase. It gives a quantitative estimation of the amount of power that is converted from electrical energy to heat energy in wire conductors, which is then dissipated. The amount of power that can be transmitted through a material is limited by several factors, including the material itself and the temperature of the environment. This limitation is observed as a decrease in power from the source to the destination, called line loss.
Line loss can be a relatively difficult value to obtain, depending on the circuit's physical makeup and environment. However, the basic calculation is fairly simple and, once understood, can be used to extrapolate line loss for any environment or variables.
The formula to calculate the line loss is P = I × V.
If a current 'I' flows through a given element in your circuit, losing voltage 'V' in the process, then the power 'P' dissipated by that circuit element is the product of that current and voltage.
Record the amount of power (P) required by your destination, found by multiplying the current (I) by the voltage (V) of your circuit. This will give you at least two-thirds of the following equation: P=I × V.
Determine the overall resistance (R) of your circuit using the following equation: R = ρ L / A ρ
L is the length of wire used in the circuit. A is the area of a cross-section of the cable or wire in feet squared.
Calculate line loss as the square of your electrical current multiplied by your calculated resistance:
P (loss) = I² R
Using Step 1, you may substitute for I, leaving an equation of P (loss) = P²R/V²
This presents a fundamental axiom of electrical theory: line loss is greatly decreased by an increase in voltage.
Plug the values into a calculator to present your line loss in decimal value, then multiply by 100 to determine your percentage.